Theory, RNR, and the LS Instruments with James Bonta
The Level of Service (LS) assessment instruments are the most widely used and researched offender risk/need instruments in the world. The LS instruments are clearly and deliberately based in theory. Specifically, this family of instruments is grounded in a General Personality and Cognitive Social Learning (GPCSL) perspective of criminal conduct. The bridge between theory and the LS is the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model of offender assessment and rehabilitation. Join James Bonta as he explores the inter-relationships among GPCSL, RNR, and the LS both logically and empirically. First, theories of the criminological varieties are reviewed and some of their shortcomings noted and in so doing highlight the need for GPCSL. Second, the practical application of GPCSL is the RNR model and the research supporting RNR in the assessment and treatment of offenders is summarized. Finally, the steps from RNR to the LS are outlined using the LS/CMI as an illustration of the most theoretically developed of the LS instruments.