The normative samples consisted of 1,120 nonreferred and nonadjudicated elementary school children from the third, fourth, sixth, and seventh grades.
Reliability of the ASPD has been found throughout its development and includes:
- Internal consistency, interrater reliability, and test-retest reliability
- Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis
- Discriminant validity and scale intercorrelations
- Associations between DSM-IV™ symptoms and APSD dimensions
Additionally, several controlled experimental studies demonstrating the APSD's validity have been conducted. The areas of research covered include:
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- Reward-Dominance, examining the association between a reward-dominant response style and anxiety, conduct problems, and psychopathy inc children
- Moral/Conventional Distinction, using a moral distinction task to compare children with or without psychopathic tendencies
- Psychophsyiological Responsiveness to Distress, examining the psychophysiological responsiveness of children with psychopathic tendencies to distress cues and threatening stimuli
For more information on the APSD click here.
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Paul J. Frick, Ph.D.
Paul J. Frick, Ph.D., received his doctorate from the University of Georgia. He currently serves at the University of New Orleans as a Professor of Psychology and Director of the Applied Developmental Psychology Program. Dr. Frick has published over 80 manuscripts, and has been invited to present on his research at numerous universities and research conferences across North America and Europe. Dr. Frick’s research focuses on understanding the many interacting causal factors that can lead to serious emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents. Dr. Frick is currently the Principal Investigator for a five year project funded by NIMH to study risk and protective factors associated with the development of violent and aggressive behavior in school children. He recently authored the book Conduct Disorders and Severe Antisocial Behavior. Back to the top
Robert Hare, Ph.D.
Robert D. Hare, Ph.D. is an emeritus professor of psychology at the University of British Columbia, and president of Darkstone Research Group, a forensic research and consulting firm. He has won numerous awards for his research, lectures widely on psychopathy, and consults with law enforcement organizations, including the FBI. He lives in Vancouver, British Columbia, with his wife. Back to the top