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Koppitz Developmental Scoring System for the Bender® Gestalt Test, 2nd Edition

Cecil R. Reynolds, Ph.D.


Developed to determine the presence and degree of visual-motor issues; identify candidates for remediation or visual-motor training; monitor the progress of progressive degenerative diseases; and evaluate the effectiveness of intervention efforts the KOPPITZ has been recently revised. The KOPPITZ-2 has been updated to include an expanded age range with additional norms and improved reliability and is suitable for those ages 5 to 85.

The KOPPITZ-2 includes the following characteristics:
  • New norms based on a nationally representative sample of 3,600 people.
  • Separate scoring systems for young children (ages 5 to 7 years) and older children and adults (ages 8 to 85+ years).
  • The addition of two- and three-dimensional drawings for older children and adults -- drawings that can reveal subtle visual-motor integration deficits.
  • A completely nonverbal format that makes the test appropriate for individuals from all cultural and ethnic backgrounds
  • High reliability across age, gender, and ethnicity.
  • Detailed scoring guidelines that insure high interscorer reliability.
  • A variety of scores -- standard scores, percentile ranks, specialized scores, and age equivalents -- to meet the needs of all practitioners.
  • A separate section of the Manual explaining how to use KOPPITZ Emotional Indicators (EIs) and a specialized form for this purpose.
How to Use the Assessment
The KOPPITZ-2 takes between 5 and 10 minutes, and is administered by a clinician. The respondent is required to draw figures from the Bender designs on a plain sheet of paper that become increasingly more complex. The respondent is also expected to organize the task independently.
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Scales & Forms

  • Visual-motor Integration Skills
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Cecil R. Reynolds, Ph. D.

Age Range 5 to 85 years

Administration Time 5–10 minutes

Administration Type Clinician-administered
    Qualification Level B

    Format Handscored