The CTOPP-2 is a comprehensive instrument designed to assess phonological awareness,phonological memory, and rapid naming. People with deficits in one or more of these areas may have more difficulty reading than those who do not. The CTOPP-2 identifies individuals from ages 4 through to 24 who may benefit from instructional activities to enhance theirphonological skills.
The CTOPP-2 can be used to:
- To identify individuals who are significantly below their peers in important phonological abilities.
- To determine strengths and weaknesses among developed phonological processes.
- To document individuals’ progress in phonological processing as a consequence of special intervention programs.
- To serve as a measurement device in research studies investigating phonological processing.
How to Use the Assessment
Phonological Awareness Composite Score (PACS) comprises the standard scores of three subtests-Elision, Blending Words, and Sound Matching-for 4 through 6 year olds, and Elision, Blending Words, and Phoneme Isolation for 7 through 24 year olds. The PACS represents the child’s awareness of and access to the phonological structure of oral language.
Phonological Memory Composite Score (PMCS) comprises the standard scores of two subtests -Memory for Digits and Nonword Repetition-for all individuals. The PMCS represents the examinee’s ability to code information phonologically for temporary storage in working or short-term memory.
The Rapid Symbolic Naming Composite Score (RSNCS) comprises the standard scores of two subtests-Rapid Digit Naming and Rapid Letter Naming –for all individuals. The RSNCS measures the examinee’s ability to include efficient retrieval of phonological information from long-term or permanent memory and execute a sequence of operations quickly and repeatedly.
Rapid Non-Symbolic Naming Composite Score (RNNCS) comprises the standard scores of two subtests-Rapid Color Naming and Rapid Object Naming and offers an alternative for young children, ages 4 through 6 year olds, not familiar with letters and numbers. The RNNCS measures the examinee’s ability to include efficient retrieval of phonological information from long-term or permanent memory and executing a sequence of operations quickly and repeatedly using objects and colors.
The Alternate Phonological Awareness Composite Score (APACS), an alternate composite for measuring phonological awareness is available for 7 through 24 year olds. It is formed by combining the scaled scores from Blending Nonwords and Segmenting Nonwords. The APACS measures the examinee’s phonological awareness exclusively with nonwords.
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- Blending Words
- Sound Matching
- Phoneme Isolation
- Blending Non words
- Segmenting Nonwords
- Memory for Digits
- Nonword Repetition
- Rapid Digit Naming
- Rapid Letter Naming
- Rapid Color Naming
- Rapid Object Naming
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