Over 100 site coordinators throughout the U.S. and Canada collected 6,825 Conners 3 assessments. The normative sample of 3,400 was extracted from 4,682 ratings of youth from the general population. The normative sample includes 50 boys and 50 girls from each age with a racial/ethnic distribution that closely matches that of the U.S. population (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000). The normative sample also includes a reasonable spread of youth from various parental education levels, and respondents from various geographical regions throughout the U.S. and Canada. Additionally, 2,143 ratings of youth with various clinical diagnoses were collected, and stringent procedures were employed in order to ensure the accuracy of the diagnoses.
Separate norms are provided for males and females, in 1-year age intervals. Combined gender norms also are available.Back to the top
Both test-retest reliability and internal consistency are very good for the Conners 3 scales and indices. Internal consistency coefficients for the total sample range from .77 to .97, and 2- to 4-week test-retest reliability coefficients (Cronbach’s alpha) range from .71 to .98 (all correlations significant, p < .001). Inter-rater reliability coefficients rangefrom .52 to .94. Support for the validity of the structure of the Conners 3 forms was obtained using factor analytic techniques on derivation and confirmatory samples.
The validity of the Conners 3 has been tested for factorial validity, construct validity (including relationships with other related measures), predictive validity (including the ability of the Conners 3 to differentiate between youth with ADHD and those without a clinical diagnosis). Back to the top Assessment Reports
Convergent and divergent validity were supported by examining the relationship between Conners 3 scores and other related measures. Statistical examination of the ability of the Conners 3 to differentiate youth with ADHD from youth in the general population and from youth in other clinical groups (including Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Learning Disorders) strongly supported the measure’s discriminative validity.
Progress Reports compare the results of two to four administrations for the same individual to measure changes over time. These reports are ideal to use when monitoring treatment and intervention. Progress Reports are available for all Conners 3 components. Comparative Reports
Comparative Reports compare the results of two to five administrations from different raters (e.g., mother, father, and a teacher) to establish the similarities and difference in reports of the youth’s functioning in different contexts. Back to the top
Conners 3 Interpretive Update
Important refinements have been made to the Conners 3 including: (1) Updated Validity scale guidelines with new language to better reflect the intent of the scales; (2) Refined T-score cutoff categories and category descriptions; and (3) The Aggression scale name change to Defiance/Aggression.
For more information on the Conners 3 Interpretive Update click here
For Scoring Software/Online Update Instructions Conners 3/Conners CBRS Update Instructions click here. Back to the top Back to the top
C. Keith Conners, Ph.D.
Dr. C. Keith Conners has had an extraordinary and diverse career as an academic, clinician, researcher, lecturer, author, editor-in-chief, and administrator. His dedication to the study of ADHD and other childhood problems propelled him to the forefront of his field. His intense interest has led him to write several books, journal articles, and book chapters based on his research on ADHD and childhood disorders. He is highly recognized in the field of psychology for his numerous contributions.
In the course of his career, Dr. Conners was greatly intrigued by children exhibiting a diverse pattern of symptoms. He collected data on children from the general population and children with an existing symptom list who were referred to clinics, and eventually published the first version of the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale. The increasing use and popularity of the rating scales eventually made his original articles among the most cited in the literature on the subject.
Dr. Conners is now retired and is currently residing in North Carolina. He continues to lecture, present workshops on diagnosis and assessment, and serve as a consultant to numerous government and private organizations. Dr. Conners was the recent recipient of the lifetime achievement award from both the Association for Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD) and the Mental Health Research Association (NARSAD).